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WHAT IS HAEMOGLOBIN GENOTYPE?
Haemoglobin: (Hb) is the complex protein molecule contained within the Red Blood cell (RBC), this gives the blood its red colour, and oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported in it.
Genotype is the “gene” type of an individual:
Gene is a unit inside a cell that controls a particular quality in a living thing that has been “passed on” from its parents,or inherited from both parents.
Gene-type found in RBCs are termed “AA”, “AS”, “AC” or “SS”, “CC”, "SC”, etc. (the last 3 types are seen in Sicklers).
WHAT IS SICKLE CELL TRAIT?
A person having a normal Hb. Gene “A” with abnormal Hb. Gene “S” or ”C” is said to “carry” Sickle Cell Trait. (Trait is a particular quality in a personality) any one with “AS” or “AC” Genotype are usually strong and can survive Mosquito attack generally.
WHO IS A SICKLER?
A Sickler is anyone that inherits Hb S and S or S and C or C and C or any other abnormal Genotype from both parents. Such a person usually falls sick every now and then (Quarterly, bi-annually, or once in 2-3 years or rarely, depending on Mental, Social, and Environmental Factors).
WHAT IS SICKLE CELL ANAEMIA?
Sickle: is a word derived from the tool of a farmer used in harvesting crops: under the microscope, the sickler’s RBC is “Sickled Shaped” while other individual’s RBC is Round and Bi-Concave in structure.
Cell: is the basic unit of life; a group of cells make up a tissue, a group of tissues become organ, and a group of organs make up a system. Every individual develop from this minute structure called cell e.g. Sperm cell, egg cell, blood cell. etc.
Anaemia:Means lack or shortage of blood in an individual; a sickler usually experiences shortage of blood because his/her RBC is Friable (easily crumble/breakable) and these RBC wear out every 30-60 days (others - 100-120 days) bringing about high demand on blood-forming-organs (Bone marrow, Liver, Spleen and rarely; lymph glands). This condition occurs almost exclusively in Negros, living in Mosquito endemic area in the tropics.
WHAT IS SICKLE CELL “CRISIS”?
A Sickler is said to be in Crisis anytime he/she feels ill or unwell; this may be as a result of :
(i)Some invading micro-organisms, malaria parasites (mainly) which destroy his / her RBCs to certain level or worm infestation feeding on RBCs resulting in shortage of blood.
(ii)When the liver is tired / diseased and cannot remove excessively -destroyed RBCs from the circulatory system, this appears as jaundice on the eyes or if there is blockage in the biliary duct; leading to ‘back flow’ of broken-down- RBCs.(Bilirubin)
(iii)Inadequate fluid intake, so that the “Sickled-shape” - RBCs clump together blocking a blood vessel and impairing blood circulation to a particular cell or tissue or organ in the body region (Vaso-occlusive-crisis); this may be mistaken for surgical-emergency-condition if it occurs in abdominal region.
WHAT ARE THE CONDITIONS COMMONLY SEEN IN SICKLERS?
A Sickler having too frequent crisis may be noticed to have any of the following conditions:
(1)Swelling of hands and feet in children(hand-foot syndrome) (2) Fever (3) Aches and pain (4) leanness (5) Loss of appetite (6) Nausea (7) Vomiting (8) Dizziness (9) Breathlessness on slightest exertion and palpitation (10) Swelling / Loss of function of any part of the body (11) insomnia (12) Jaundice (13) Necrosis of any area that is impaired of oxygenated blood / nutrients (14) Leg ulcers (15) Respiratory Tract Infection/ Inflammation Symptoms (16) Gastro-Intestinal Tract upset symptoms (17) Pathological fracture of head of femur (18) Priapism (19) Delayed menstruation (20) Stunted growth (21) Defiant nature (22) Feeling of resentment (23) Disturbance in academic programs (24) Laziness attitude (25) Liver / Spleen enlargement (26) Constipation (27) Stroke .(28) Urinary Tract Infection. (29) Sexually Transmitted Diseases Symtoms(STD)
N. B. Some sicklers are so blessed that they may not portray or experience some of these complains / conditions in their lifetime for all these symptoms / Signs are CLASSIFIED OPRESSION FROM THE DEVIL (John 10 vs. 10).
God is Able To Make All Grace Abound Towards Us (2ndCor.9 vs 8)